نقش میانجیگری اشتیاق تحصیلی در رابطۀ علّی سبک‌های دلبستگی با فرسودگی تحصیلی دانشجویان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روانشناسی تربیتی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد روانشناسی تربیتی، دانشکده روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران.(نویسنده مسئول)

3 دانشیار سنجش و اندازه‎گیری، دانشکده روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مقدمه و هدف: از مشکلات شایع در بین دانشجویان، پایین بودن سطح انگیزه و افزایش فرسودگی تحصیلی است. هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی رابطۀ علّی سبک‌های دلبستگی با فرسودگی تحصیلی دانشجویان با میانجیگری اشتیاق تحصیلی بود.
روش شناسی: روش پژوهش، توصیفی و از نوع طرح‎های همبستگی و روش مدل‎یابی معادلات ساختاری بود. جامعۀ آماری، همه دانشجویان دختر و پسر مقطع کارشناسی مشغول به تحصیل در سال تحصیلی 96-1395 در دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قوچان بود. نمونه شامل 403 نفر، از طریق فرمول کوکران و به روش نمونه‎گیری خوشه‎ای انتخاب شدند. ابزارهای پژوهش شامل: 1. مقیاس ابعاد دلبستگی کولینز (1996). در نسخه اصلی، ضریب آلفای کرونباخ برای دلبستگی ایمن 81/0، دلبستگی اجتنابی 78/0 و دلبستگی اضطرابی 85/0 گزارش شدند. روایی این مقیاس مطلوب بود و ضریب پایایی کل پرسشنامه 60/0 محاسبه شد.  2. مقیاس فرسودگی تحصیلی مسلش (2002). در تحقیق حاضر ضریب پایایی کل 85/0 و ضریب پایایی برای خرده مقیاس‎های فرسودگی تحصیلی (خستگی، بی علاقه بودن و خودکارآمدی پایین) به ترتیب 85/0، 80/0، و 75/0 به دست آمد. 3. مقیاس اشتیاق تحصیلی فردریکز و بلومنفلد و پاریس(2004). طراحان مقیاس، ضریب پایایی این مقیاس را 86/0 گزارش کردند. در پژوهش حاضر ضریب پایایی کل پرسشنامه 83/0 به دست آمد. به منظور تحلیل داده‎ها، شاخص‎های برازش و ضرایب مسیر استخراج شدند.
 یافته ها: نتایج نشان داد، همۀ خرده ‎مقیاس‎های پژوهش دارای بارهای عاملی معناداری هستند. سبک ایمن با میانجیگری اشتیاق تحصیلی با فرسودگی تحصیلی، همبستگی منفی و معنا‎داری داشت. سبک اضطرابی با میانجیگری اشتیاق تحصیلی با فرسودگی تحصیلی رابطۀ معنا‏داری نداشت، و سبک اجتنابی با میانجیگری اشتیاق تحصیلی با فرسودگی تحصیلی، رابطۀ مثبت و معنا‏دار داشت.
نتیجه گیری: سبک‎های ایمن و اجتنابی در تبیین و پیش‏بینی فرسودگی تحصیلی نقش دارند. این سبک‎ها از یک سو تحت تأثیر اشتیاق تحصیلی قرار دارند و از سوی دیگر می‏توانند اثرات معناداری بر فرسودگی تحصیلی دانشجویان داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The intermediary role of Academic engagement in the Causal relation between attachment styles and academic burnout in University students

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Dorostkar Moghadam 1
  • Fariborz Dortaj 2
  • Nourali Farrokhi 3
1 Ph.D Candidate in Educational Psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor in Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabatabaee, University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor in Assessment and Measurement, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Allameh Tabatabaee, University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction & Objective: One of the common problems among students is low level of motivation and increased academic burnout. The aim of this study was to investigate the causal relationship between attachment styles and students' academic burnout mediated by academic engagement.
Methodology: The research method was descriptive and correlational design and structural equation modeling method. The statistical population was all male and female undergraduate students studying in the academic year 2016-2017 at the Islamic Azad University of Quchan. The sample of 403 people was selected through Cochran's formula and cluster sampling. Research tools include: 1. Collins Attachment Styles Scale (1996). In the original version, Cronbach's alpha coefficient for secure attachment was 0.81, avoidance attachment was 0.78, and anxiety attachment was 0.85. The validity of this scale was favorable and the reliability coefficient of the whole questionnaire was calculated to be 0.60. 2. Maslash Academic Burnout Scale (2002). In the present study, the total reliability coefficient of 0.85 and the reliability coefficient for the subscales of academic burnout (exhaustion, cynicism and low self-efficacy) were 0.85, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively. 3. Frederick and Bloomfeld and Paris Academic engagement Scale (2004). Scale designers reported the reliability coefficient of this scale as 0.86. In the present study, the total reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.83. In order to analyze the data, fit indices and path coefficients were extracted.
Results: The results showed that all subscales of the study have significant factor loads. Safe style had a significant negative correlation with academic burnout mediated by academic engagement. Anxiety style did not have a significant relationship with academic burnout mediated by academic engagement, and avoidance style mediated by academic engagement had a positive and significant relationship with academic burnout.
Conclusion: Safe and avoidant styles play a role in explaining and predicting academic burnout. These styles are influenced by academic motivation on the one hand and can have significant effects on students' academic burnout on the other hand.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attachment styles
  • academic burnout
  • academic engagement
  • Structural Equation Model
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    • Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York, NY, US: Basic Books.
    • Brazeau CM, Schroeder R, Rovi S, Boyd L. (2010). Relationships between medical student burnout, empathy, and professionalism climate. Academic Medicine, 85, 33-36.
    • Brougham, R.R., Zail, C.M., Mendoza, C.M. and Miller, J.R. (2009). Stress, Sex Differences, and Coping Strategies among College Students. Current Psychology, 28, 85-97.
    • Cazan, A.M. (2015). Learning motivation, engagement and burnout among university students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 187, 413 – 417.
    • D'Arrisso, A. (2010). Academic achievement in first nations adolescents: The role of parental and peer attachment in promoting successful outcomes. Master's Thesis. McGill University.
    • Dahlin M, Joneborg N, Runeson B. (2007). Performance-based self-esteem and burnout in a cross-sectional study of medical students. Medical Teacher, 29(1), 43-48.
    • Dyrbye, N., Harper, W., Durning, S. J., Moutier, C., Thomas, M. R., Massie, F. S., Jr.,… & Shanafelt, T. D. (2011). Patterns of distress in US medical students. Medical Teacher, 33(10), 834839.
    • Falsafinezhad, Mohammad Reza; Azizi Abarghoui, Mohsen; Ebrahimi Ghavamabadi, Soghra; Dortaj, Fariborz. (2015). Developing a causal model of academic burnout considering the mediating role of self-efficacy in undergraduate students. Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy Culture, 6 (24), 1-27. (in Persian)
    • Fares, J, Tabosh, H. A., Saadeddin Z, Mouhayyar E, Aridi, H. (2016). Stress, Burnout and Coping Strategies in Preclinical Medical Students. North American Journal of Medical Sciences, 8(2), 75–81.
    • Glozah, N., Pevalin, D.J. (2014). Social support, stress, health, and academic success in Ghanaian adolescents: a path analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 37(4), 451– 460.
    • Goodwin, L. (2004). The relevance of attachment theory to the philosophy organization, & practice of adult mental health care. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 35-56.
    • Habibah Elias, Wong Siew Ping, Maria Chong Abdullah (2011). Stress and Academic Achievement among Undergraduate Students in University Putra Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 646-655.
    • Hicks, Cillora. (2015). "Utilization of a Focus Group to Evaluate the Perceived Stress Levels and Coping Mechanisms of Student Registered Nurse Anesthetists". Doctoral Projects. 21.
    • IsHak, , Nikravesh, R., Lederer, S., Perry, R., Ogunyemi, D., & Bernstein, C. (2013). Burnout in medical students: a systematic review. Clinical Teacher, 10, 242245.
    • Lee, J.-S. (2014). The Relationship between Student Engagement and Academic Performance: Is It a Myth or Reality? The Journal of Educational Research, 107(3), 177-185.
    • Mahmoudian, Hasan; Abbasi, Muslem; Pirani, Zabih; Shah Ali Kaboudani, Fatemeh. (2017). The Role of Emotional, Cognitive and Behavioral Learning Passion in Predicting Students' Academic Burnout. Two Quarterly Cognitive Strategies in Learning, 6 (10), 197-207. (in Persian)
    • May, R. W., Bauer, K. N., Fincham, F. D. (2015). School burnout: Diminished academic and cognitive performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 42, 126–131.
    • May, R. W., Seiberta, G. S., Sanchez-Gonzalezb, M. A., Fincham, F. D. (2016). Physiology of school burnout in medical students: Hemodynamic and autonomic functioning. Burnout Research, 3, 63-68.
    • MoghimIslam, M., jafari, P., & Hoseini, M. (2013). Impact of Stress Management Training on the Girl High School Student Academic Achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 89, 22-26.
    • Mohammadkhani, Shahram; Bahari, Ali; Akbarian Firouzabadi, Mahsa. (2017). Attachment styles and symptoms of depression: The mediating role of rumination. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 23(3), 320-335. (in Persian)
    • Moss, E., & St-Laurent, D. (2002). Attachment at School Age and Academic Performance. American Psychological Association, 37 (6): 863-874.
    • Naami, Abdulzahra; Piriyai, Salehe. (2012). The Relationship between Dimensions of Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement in Third Year High School Students in Ahvaz. Journal of Research in Educational Systems, 6 (16), 29-42. (in Persian)
    • Parker, P., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2011). Developmental processes in school burnout: A comparison of major developmental models. Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 244–248.
    • Pagnin, D., de Queiroz, V., Carvalho, Y. T., Dutra, A. S., Amaral, M. B., & Queiroz, T. T. (2014). The relation between burnout and sleep disorders in medical students. Academic Psychiatry, 38(4), 438–444.
    • Pierceall, E.A. and Keim, M.C. (2007) Stress and coping strategies among community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 31(9), 703-712.
    • Pines, A. M. (2004). Adult attachment styles and their relationship to burnout: A Preliminary, cross-cultural investigation. Work & Stress, 18(1), 66-80.
    • Qasemi, Wahid. (2013). Structural Equation Modeling in Social Research Using Amos Graphics. Tehran: Sociologists publication. (in Persian)
    • Ronen, S., & Mikulincer, M. (2009). Attachment orientation and job burnout: The mediating roles of team cohesion and organizational fairness. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26(4), 549-563.
    • Saif, Mohammad Hassan; Rastegar, Ahmad; Ershadi, Raheleh. (2017). The relationship between perfectionism and burnout through academic engagement. Research in Medical Education, 9 (2), 34-43. (in Persian)
    • Saklofske, D. H., Austin, E. J., Mastoras, S. M., Beaton, L., & Osborne, S. E. (2012). Relationships of personality, affect, emotional intelligence and coping with student stress and academic success: Different patterns of association for stress and success. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 251-257.
    • Salmela-Aro, K., Kiuru, N., Leskinen, E., &Nurmi, J. (2009). School Burnout Inventory (SBI) reliability and validity. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25, 48 –57.
    • Salmela-Aro, K., Savolainen, H., & Holopainen, L. (2009). Depressive symptoms and school burnout during adolescence: Evidence from two cross-lagged longitudinal studies. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 1316 –1327.
    • Schaufeli, W., Martinez, I., Pinto, A. M., Salanova, M., & Backer, A. (2002). Burnout and engagement in university students: A cross-national study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 464 –481.
    • Sharif Shad, Fatemeh; Arsang Jang, Shahram; Kheirollahi, Fatemeh. (2017). Prevalence of academic burnout and some related factors among medical students of Qom. Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal, 11 (2), 77-86. (in Persian)
    • Sharpe, K. (2004). Parental influence on the development of children [On-Line]. Available: https://people.creighton.edu/idc24708/Genes%20Poster/Papers/Parenting/Sharpe.doc.
    • Tahmasebi, Gholamhossein; Ramezani, Seyedeh Gol Afrooz; Zare, Heshmat. (2018). The effect of metacognitive strategies on achievement motivation and academic burnout in elementary sixth grade female students. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Administration, 9 (33), 173-190. (in Persian)
    • Tobman, J., & Fass, M. (2002). The influence of parent and peer attachment on college students' academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 561-573.
    • Walburg, V. (2014). Burnout among high school students: A literature review. Children and Youth Services Review, 42, 28-33.
    • Yaghoubkhani Ghiasvand, Marzieh; Asadzadeh, Hassan; Sadipour, Ismail; Delavar, Ali; Doraj, Fariborz. (2017). Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the School-Based Psychological Needs of Adolescents in Adolescent Students. Quarterly Journal of Educational and College Studies, 6 (1), 40-62. (in Persian)
    • Zahed Babolan, Adel; Pourbahram, Roshanak; Rahmani Javanmard, Samira. (2014). The Relationship of Perfectionism, Goal Selection and Academic Performance with Academic Burnout. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Administration, 5 (18), 124-109. (in Persian)

     

     

    • Atashrouz, Behrouz; Pakdaman, Shahla; Asgari, Ali. (2008). The relationship between the five personality traits and academic achievement. Developmental Psychology Quarterly: Iranian Psychologists, 4 (16), 367-376. (in Persian)
    • Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York, NY, US: Basic Books.
    • Brazeau CM, Schroeder R, Rovi S, Boyd L. (2010). Relationships between medical student burnout, empathy, and professionalism climate. Academic Medicine, 85, 33-36.
    • Brougham, R.R., Zail, C.M., Mendoza, C.M. and Miller, J.R. (2009). Stress, Sex Differences, and Coping Strategies among College Students. Current Psychology, 28, 85-97.
    • Cazan, A.M. (2015). Learning motivation, engagement and burnout among university students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 187, 413 – 417.
    • D'Arrisso, A. (2010). Academic achievement in first nations adolescents: The role of parental and peer attachment in promoting successful outcomes. Master's Thesis. McGill University.
    • Dahlin M, Joneborg N, Runeson B. (2007). Performance-based self-esteem and burnout in a cross-sectional study of medical students. Medical Teacher, 29(1), 43-48.
    • Dyrbye, N., Harper, W., Durning, S. J., Moutier, C., Thomas, M. R., Massie, F. S., Jr.,… & Shanafelt, T. D. (2011). Patterns of distress in US medical students. Medical Teacher, 33(10), 834839.
    • Falsafinezhad, Mohammad Reza; Azizi Abarghoui, Mohsen; Ebrahimi Ghavamabadi, Soghra; Dortaj, Fariborz. (2015). Developing a causal model of academic burnout considering the mediating role of self-efficacy in undergraduate students. Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy Culture, 6 (24), 1-27. (in Persian)
    • Fares, J, Tabosh, H. A., Saadeddin Z, Mouhayyar E, Aridi, H. (2016). Stress, Burnout and Coping Strategies in Preclinical Medical Students. North American Journal of Medical Sciences, 8(2), 75–81.
    • Glozah, N., Pevalin, D.J. (2014). Social support, stress, health, and academic success in Ghanaian adolescents: a path analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 37(4), 451– 460.
    • Goodwin, L. (2004). The relevance of attachment theory to the philosophy organization, & practice of adult mental health care. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 35-56.
    • Habibah Elias, Wong Siew Ping, Maria Chong Abdullah (2011). Stress and Academic Achievement among Undergraduate Students in University Putra Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 646-655.
    • Hicks, Cillora. (2015). "Utilization of a Focus Group to Evaluate the Perceived Stress Levels and Coping Mechanisms of Student Registered Nurse Anesthetists". Doctoral Projects. 21.
    • IsHak, , Nikravesh, R., Lederer, S., Perry, R., Ogunyemi, D., & Bernstein, C. (2013). Burnout in medical students: a systematic review. Clinical Teacher, 10, 242245.
    • Lee, J.-S. (2014). The Relationship between Student Engagement and Academic Performance: Is It a Myth or Reality? The Journal of Educational Research, 107(3), 177-185.
    • Mahmoudian, Hasan; Abbasi, Muslem; Pirani, Zabih; Shah Ali Kaboudani, Fatemeh. (2017). The Role of Emotional, Cognitive and Behavioral Learning Passion in Predicting Students' Academic Burnout. Two Quarterly Cognitive Strategies in Learning, 6 (10), 197-207. (in Persian)
    • May, R. W., Bauer, K. N., Fincham, F. D. (2015). School burnout: Diminished academic and cognitive performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 42, 126–131.
    • May, R. W., Seiberta, G. S., Sanchez-Gonzalezb, M. A., Fincham, F. D. (2016). Physiology of school burnout in medical students: Hemodynamic and autonomic functioning. Burnout Research, 3, 63-68.
    • MoghimIslam, M., jafari, P., & Hoseini, M. (2013). Impact of Stress Management Training on the Girl High School Student Academic Achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 89, 22-26.
    • Mohammadkhani, Shahram; Bahari, Ali; Akbarian Firouzabadi, Mahsa. (2017). Attachment styles and symptoms of depression: The mediating role of rumination. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 23(3), 320-335. (in Persian)
    • Moss, E., & St-Laurent, D. (2002). Attachment at School Age and Academic Performance. American Psychological Association, 37 (6): 863-874.
    • Naami, Abdulzahra; Piriyai, Salehe. (2012). The Relationship between Dimensions of Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement in Third Year High School Students in Ahvaz. Journal of Research in Educational Systems, 6 (16), 29-42. (in Persian)
    • Parker, P., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2011). Developmental processes in school burnout: A comparison of major developmental models. Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 244–248.
    • Pagnin, D., de Queiroz, V., Carvalho, Y. T., Dutra, A. S., Amaral, M. B., & Queiroz, T. T. (2014). The relation between burnout and sleep disorders in medical students. Academic Psychiatry, 38(4), 438–444.
    • Pierceall, E.A. and Keim, M.C. (2007) Stress and coping strategies among community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 31(9), 703-712.
    • Pines, A. M. (2004). Adult attachment styles and their relationship to burnout: A Preliminary, cross-cultural investigation. Work & Stress, 18(1), 66-80.
    • Qasemi, Wahid. (2013). Structural Equation Modeling in Social Research Using Amos Graphics. Tehran: Sociologists publication. (in Persian)
    • Ronen, S., & Mikulincer, M. (2009). Attachment orientation and job burnout: The mediating roles of team cohesion and organizational fairness. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26(4), 549-563.
    • Saif, Mohammad Hassan; Rastegar, Ahmad; Ershadi, Raheleh. (2017). The relationship between perfectionism and burnout through academic engagement. Research in Medical Education, 9 (2), 34-43. (in Persian)
    • Saklofske, D. H., Austin, E. J., Mastoras, S. M., Beaton, L., & Osborne, S. E. (2012). Relationships of personality, affect, emotional intelligence and coping with student stress and academic success: Different patterns of association for stress and success. Learning and Individual Differences, 22, 251-257.
    • Salmela-Aro, K., Kiuru, N., Leskinen, E., &Nurmi, J. (2009). School Burnout Inventory (SBI) reliability and validity. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25, 48 –57.
    • Salmela-Aro, K., Savolainen, H., & Holopainen, L. (2009). Depressive symptoms and school burnout during adolescence: Evidence from two cross-lagged longitudinal studies. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 1316 –1327.
    • Schaufeli, W., Martinez, I., Pinto, A. M., Salanova, M., & Backer, A. (2002). Burnout and engagement in university students: A cross-national study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 464 –481.
    • Sharif Shad, Fatemeh; Arsang Jang, Shahram; Kheirollahi, Fatemeh. (2017). Prevalence of academic burnout and some related factors among medical students of Qom. Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal, 11 (2), 77-86. (in Persian)
    • Sharpe, K. (2004). Parental influence on the development of children [On-Line]. Available: https://people.creighton.edu/idc24708/Genes%20Poster/Papers/Parenting/Sharpe.doc.
    • Tahmasebi, Gholamhossein; Ramezani, Seyedeh Gol Afrooz; Zare, Heshmat. (2018). The effect of metacognitive strategies on achievement motivation and academic burnout in elementary sixth grade female students. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Administration, 9 (33), 173-190. (in Persian)
    • Tobman, J., & Fass, M. (2002). The influence of parent and peer attachment on college students' academic achievement. Psychology in the Schools, 39, 561-573.
    • Walburg, V. (2014). Burnout among high school students: A literature review. Children and Youth Services Review, 42, 28-33.
    • Yaghoubkhani Ghiasvand, Marzieh; Asadzadeh, Hassan; Sadipour, Ismail; Delavar, Ali; Doraj, Fariborz. (2017). Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the School-Based Psychological Needs of Adolescents in Adolescent Students. Quarterly Journal of Educational and College Studies, 6 (1), 40-62. (in Persian)
    • Zahed Babolan, Adel; Pourbahram, Roshanak; Rahmani Javanmard, Samira. (2014). The Relationship of Perfectionism, Goal Selection and Academic Performance with Academic Burnout. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Administration, 5 (18), 124-109. (in Persian)